FACT-BASED LINK BETWEEN LAND DEGRADATION AND NATIONAL SECRURITY – BAUCHI STATE IN A BATTLE AGAINST DERSETIFICATION – By: Matthew Abah-Enyi with reports from researchers in the fields

“When land degradation reaches a level, it seriously threatens people’s livelihoods, it can turn into a security issue. Data from 2007

show that 80% of major armed conflicts affecting society occurred in vulnerable dry ecosystems”, Ms Monique Barbut Executive Secretary UN Convention to Combat Desertification.

Antonio Guterres: The ninth and incumbent United Nations Secretary General

Antonio Guterres: The ninth and incumbent United Nations Secretary General

Bauchi state is situated in the North-Eastern region of Nigeria. It

Gen. Mohammadu Buhari: President, Federal Republic of Nigeria

Gen. Mohammadu Buhari: President, Federal Republic of Nigeria

has a total land area of 49,119 square kilometers. Its geographical positioning places it on the way of the Sahara Desert which is on record to be marching from the desert-conquered Northern States of Nigeria towards the Southern regions of the country at the pace of 600 square meters per annum. Today the most menacing economic albatross on the shoulders of social-political leaders of the state is the multifaceted effects of worsening desertification which present themselves in various forms of land degradation, fast-tracked by Climate Change. Populated by over 6,653,066 people, based on the 2006 population figure and its multiplication effects, the people of Bauchi are practically caught between the devil and the deep blue sea as represented by the scotched-earth effects of the desert and the vagaries of scarce state resources battered by a national economy in recession. Economic infrastructure put in place over the years by the state, regional and the Federal governments are subjected to time-imposed degradation in the face of grossly inadequate financial allocation for their maintenance. While state governments across Nigeria have had to gaze into the crystal-balls every month in search-of magic-formulas to enable them pay for unavoidable over-head expenditures, the

 

need for infrastructural development to improve on the economic wherewithal of the citizenry remain a source of night-mare to them. Economic infrastructure such as rural feeder roads to enhance earnings from agricultural investments,

rural electrification to empower rural-based artisans and sustainable medical delivery systems are all crying for attention in the face of chronic paucity of funds needed for such engagements.

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The level of land and infrastructural degradation prevalent in a desert encroached state like Bauchi is indisputably a source of veritable concern for any careful observer. Ambitious farmers with an average number of seven dependants to cater for medically, educationally and in other ways get caught in the webs of worsening desertification, leading to regrettable abortion of his children’s educational ambitions and indebtedness. Vibrant youth energy lies idly and wastes away in the rural communities as their farmlands has not offered the much needed escape route from poverty due to the level of land and infrastructure degradation that the desert and a recessed national economy have imposed on them.

Unfortunately the prevailing scenario is a recipe for regional, national and even global insecurity. On 17th June 2016 the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (C.C.D) Ms Monique Barbut put it quite succinctly during the World Day to combat desertification observance at the EXPO Milono when she unequivocally said that land degradation is a veritable source of threat to Global security.

“When land degradation reaches a level, it seriously threatens people’s livelihoods, it can turn into a security issue. Data from 2007 shows that 80% of major armed conflicts affecting society occurred in vulnerable dry ecosystems”,

Ms Monique Barbut: Executive Secretary UN Convention to Combat Desertification.

Ms Monique Barbut: Executive Secretary UN Convention to Combat Desertification.

she said. This buttresses the frightening truth of the fact that the earlier all hands are put on the deck by non-governmental organizations, Governmental Agencies Departments and Ministries, Corporate Organization, humanitarian foundations and private sector professionals to mobilize land degradation control and amelioration actions to all threatened zones in rural Africa, the better for all.

 

Arising mainly from the fact that Bauchi state shares borders with one of the states in Nigeria where national security has been stressed and threatened over the years, and the fact that desertification is marching upon the state, WIND SOUND AFRICA has been on the grounds in the rural areas to identify the economic implications of the degradations and proffer solutions through a fact based Advocacy Action. Our local Government Areas-focused fact-finding and fact-based Advocacy Action Plans are as follows.

BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Bauchi Local Government Area is the metropolitan Council Area which plays host to the   capital city of Bauchi State. For this reason, the area experiences massive migration not only from other local government areas of the state, but also from all over the country in the citizens’ quests to serve as federal civil servants, employees of corporate organizations, and as business men and women all of which combine to put pressure on the land resources of the Local Government Area. Some of the Local Government Area’s land and infrastructure degradation flashpoints include;

  1. Moroko/Rainlway station gully erosion site. This expansive gully site extends from Nasarawa Jahun, across Dutsen Tanshi and through Moroko Railway station and on to Gudu community covering a total distance of 7 kilometers. The gullies measured 10 meters wide, 5 meters deep at Ganuwa Moroko. Soil samples taken from the area when subjected to tests, showed absence of essential nutrient contents when compared to ones obtained from non-degraded areas of its neighborhood. The total size of the gully ravaged area is 4,500 square meters. Urgently needed degradation control structures in the area are sand-filling, stone- pitching and water drainage channels.
  2. Yelwa Bridge: This very important bridge is highly threatened by gully erosion water which source is Yelwa stream which is known for flooding its borders every rainy season. The streams side gullies were as deep as 30 meters deep. The buildings and surrounding lands need to be stone- pitched as an embankment to prevent further expansion around the bridge.
  3. Kasuwan Yelwa Tudun Gully Erosion Site: this degradation site which is said to expand by as much as 2 meters a year threaten General Hassan Katsina Unity College, the market in the area as well as the road that links Bauchi to its neighboring southern towns. The gully measured 27 meters wide, 5 meters deep and stretches as far as four kilometer long from Yelwa to Gwalaga Dadawa. The area needs extensive stone-pitching and embankments around threatened buildings and the market area.
  4. Tambari – Sabon Kaura Bridge Gully Site: This menace affects the very important bridge on the commercially important road that links Tambari Area of the L.G.A. to Sabon Kaura. The bridge’s concrete works had been badly eroded as at the time of our visit and urgently needs re-enforced stone-pitching and sand-filling around its 51 meters wide eroded area. Soil tests carried on samples from the area showed significant loss of nutrient contents compared to others found in near-by areas that were not being subjected to similar menace.
  5. Malmo Gully Erosion Site: This menace affects the road linking Karwala to Gwokaru, affecting a curvet work along the road to a state of near-destruction. Transportation between the two communities will soon be rendered impossible due to the inadequacy of the present culvert work. The gullies measured 50 meter wide and the area urgently needs another curvet work to keep the road useful. On the same road, another gully site popularly referred to as Rafin Halilu measured 31 meters deep. Recovery and protection works in the forms of stone-pitching sand-filling need to be undertaken up to 28 meters towards Gwokaru from the gully site and 40 meters towards Kwangal.

Impacts Conclusion:

When the prevalent land/infrastructure degradation data obtained from the flash points visited by our Team in Bauchi LGA were subjected to various forms of expert analysis, including those of desertification and Climate Change effects, it was concluded that the council area and its people loose as much as N350 million every year to the multiple effects of the degradation through land-use economic losses, unrealized taxes and human capital under-utilization. Problems control structural cost analysts are also of the opinion that the council area needs as much as N400 million to be able to put in place those urgent structures that will stem the tides of those losses, even as the data obtained are being subjected to specific determination of the desired structural bills of quantity [BQ]. In view of this and the down-turn of envisaged financial resources, the Council Area needs the financial contributions of all related Non-governmental Organization, community-based Organizations, corporate conglomerates and Humanitarian Foundations to rise above this very threatening existential problems. This same fact is applicable at various levels to other local government areas of the state whose economic aspirations are wholly dependant on their agricultural where-withal.

BOGORO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Bogoro local government area is burdened with a number of lands/infrastructural degradation flash points which combine to constitute serious socio-economic problems to the people and all levels of government in the state. The identified flash points are as follows:

  1. Tadnum/Zakam Gully Erosion Site: This gully erosion raged site affects farmlands and the road that links Bogoro local government area to Kanam local government area of Plateau State. The main source of erosion water is Tadanum/Zakam stream. Up to 25 hectares of farmland is affected, leading to highly declined economic returns from agricultural investments and the living standard of the people. Soil tests carried out on samples obtained from the area showed that the quantum of fertilizer and other inputs needed to obtain any profitable harvests by farmers in the area end up putting them into debts. The streams gully track, from embankment to embankment measured 65 meters. Gullies measured 10.7 meters deep. Degradation mitigation structures needed in the area includes extensive sand-filing, stone-pitching and embankment construction around the stream’s border areas.
  2. Giraki Gully Erosion Site: This degradation site affects vast areas of farmlands and the road linking Badagare to Guzaki community and unto Kanke local government area of Plateau state. The devastated road also links Gazaki to Lusa community. Up to 82 hectare of farmlands are affected here, leading to negatives impacts on the social economic where-withal of the people who are 100% farmers by occupation. Gully site which need urgent control structures measured 75 meters from embankment to embankment, 55 meters wide, and 12 meters deep. The gully site is popularly known as Badagari/Gonaki gully site. Mitigation structures urgently needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching, bridge-work and drainage system. Farmers with no alternative farmlands have to invest heavily on fertilization inputs because soil sample tests showed extremely low nutrient contents in the soil. This ultimately leads to degrading harvests and poor standard of living far below the level   recommended by the United Nations.
  3. Boi-Gambarzugum Road Degradation Site: This land degradation site along the road affects the commercially and agriculturally vital road which links many communities in the local government area together. Excessive flooding from River Gambarzugum is the main source of the menace. The bridge that links Gambarzugum to Bai and also acts as the socio-economic bridge between them and other communities like Yangal, Danbar, Sara, Num, Lese in Tafawa Balewa L.G.A., and Gingiri in Plateau State, had broken down as at the time of our visit due largely to the land degradation menace around the bridge. The population of people dependant on the road for economic activities is put at 32,000 people. The broken bridge was built in 2001 by the converging communities through self help project funding without any contribution from any level of government and non-governmental quarters. Mitigation structures needed in the area are sand-filling, drainages and the replacement of the damaged bridge.
  4. Boi-Yangal Road Gully Site: This affects up to 20 hectares of farmland and other infrastructures in the two communities. River Yangal is the source of the menace. The river’s gully track measured 74 meters from embankment to embankment, 52 meters wide and 17 meters deep. The area needs sand-filling, stone-pitching and a bridge work.
  5. Kampany Area of Bogoro Town Gully Erosion Site: The problem site mainly affects farmlands. Up to 72 hectares of farmland is devastated leading to a situation where the land owners, who are 100% farmers without the most important capital for a profitable economic investment. Mitigation structures needed in the area are an extensive sand-filling project and a carefully planned and funded Jathropha planting and nurturing to prevent erosion problem and act as an economic empowerment program.

Impacts Conclusion:

The combination of lands/infrastructure degradation problems in Bogoro Local Government Area, according to expert analysts who were availed of the field data obtained from the area, were of the informed opinion that the local government and its people loose as much as N400 million annually through perished crops, lost investments, uncollectable taxes and wasted human resources. The area also needs as much as N450 million to be able to put in place the barest level of mitigation structures in the areas our Team visited even as specific structure’s Bills of Quantizes were still being audited.

DAMBAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Identified lands/infrastructural degradation flash-point is in Danbam local government area of Bauchi state as determined by the leadership of the local government are as follows:

  1. Lailai- Zaura – Ngaipa – Tayyu Road Gully Site: The road and its surrounding farmlands are perennially swamped by flood waters during the rainy seasons. Up to 10 hectares of farmlands affected along the 35 kilometers long road. Population of people who depend on the road for their economy activities is put at 90,000 people. Problems mitigation structures needed to address the degradation is a combination of sand-filling, culvert works, drainage system along parts of the road and stone-pitching. Soil samples taken from the area, when subjected to tests showed loss of essential contents, compared to ones obtained from nearby areas.
  2. Daganda-Jalam Road Gully Sites:

This problem site affects the 25 kilometer road that was once a tarred road but now constitutes a horror to travel along during the rains. Villages that depend on the road for its economic activities are said to be populated with up to 50,000 people. Problems mitigation structures urgently needed in the area are extensive sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage system.

  1. Danbam-Garbana Road Flood/Gully Erosion Zone: This rural road that links Danbam to Garbana and on to other communities such as Jale, Garin Barde and parts of Ganjuwa Local Government area has been at the receiving end of perennial flooding and ravaging erosion waters that had left vast gullies all over the place in recent years. The area needs sand-filling and stone-pitching as well as grading works around a threatened bridge for up to 500 meters from the bridge towards Garin Barde and 400 meter towards Ganjuwa.
  2. Danbam-Garuza-Yanda Road Gully Site: This road suffers unmitigated onslaughts from gullies and seasonal water-logging that had rendered the road virtually useless to the 45,000 people that depend on it for their economic activities. Other communities that depend on the road are Yakassai, Wahu, Galatafo, Garin Jarinma, Yanda and Chaddi. The roads is 27 kilometers long and needs comprehensive rehabilitation works through sand-filling drainage system and six members of culvert works.
  3. Jalam-Janda-Garin Jarmai Rural Road Degradation: The 20 kilometer road links up to 50,000 people residing in up to five communities within the Council Area and popular product markets patronized by traders from   other parts of the state. The road suffers from a combination of flooding, gully erosion and lack of general maintenance. It needs rehabilitation through the construction of drainage systems, sand-filling and culvert works.

Impacts Conclusions:

When the Lands/Infrastructure degradation data obtained from the nooks and crannies of Danbam local government area were put before expert analysts, it was concluded that the government and people of Danbam loose as much as N340 million every year to those menaces and   also need as much as N400 million to put in place necessary problems mitigation structures across the land even as the problems-specific Bills of quantities for such problems were still being worked on.

DARAZO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

The land/infrastructure degradation flash-points in Darazo Local Government Area that were covered by our team are:-

  1. Lago town Gully Erosion Site: The problem affects residential buildings and the town’s major streets. Up to ten residential homes are on record to have been devastated by the gully erosion menace. The gullies measured 3 meters deep, 5 meters wide in most areas with un-ravaged spaces between them that are in the range of less than 10 meters. The ravaging gullies, put together measured two kilometers long. Problems solution structures needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and a well-planned drainage systems. Baneri stream into which the harvested erosion waters can be emptied is 2000 meters away from the center of the devastated areas. The area is populated by up to 15,000 people. Soil samples obtained from the area when subjected to nutrients content determining test showed significant loss when compared to those obtained from near-by areas that do not suffer from similar devastations.
  2. Ungwan Jarmai Flood Zone: Experiences annual flooding that affects residential homes, town roads and a vast space of farmlands. Our Team confirmed that at the last count up to 35 houses had been destroyed by the flood water while 30 hectares of farmlands were flooded during the last rainy season. Out of the floods homes, seventeen of them had been permanently abandoned. Problems control structures needed at the area are drainage systems, embankments and stone-pitching of areas around the residential areas badly affected by the menace.
  3. Ganjigina – Darazo-Gombe Road Flood Zone: The twenty kilometers long road has been rendered very difficult to use especially during the rainy seasons when residents whose population is put at 10,000 people need the road for farming and harvesting activities. Up to 3 culverts put in place by the state government need complete rehabilitation with culverts and drainage system in appropriate places.
  4. Darazo-Hashidu Road Flood Zone: The four kilometer-long road which links up to 17,00 people to Darazo suffers from seasonal flooding that affects farmlands, the road itself and some settlements near the road. The road needs necessary rehabilitation in the form of proper drainage, culvert works and an earth-dam to harvest flood water into a needed earth-dam for the purpose of dry-season farming.
  5. Shade Community Gully Erosion Site: The problem affects farmlands, roads and residential houses. Up to 30 residential homes are on record to have been destroyed and the local government Guest House in the area is affected. Also up to 15 hectares of farmlands has been devastated. Control structures urgently needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage systems. Soil test obtained from most parts of the devastated areas showed significant loss of nutrient contents.

Impacts Conclusion:

When the facts and figures obtained from the flash-points of lands/infrastructure degradation areas in Darazo were put before relevant analysts, it was concluded that the area looses up to N400 million every year to wasted agricultural investments, uncollectable taxes and idle human resources. The area needs up to N390 million naira to put in place urgently needed structures to mitigate the effects of the problems.

DASS LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Dass local government area of Bauchi state is a council area which is surrounded by a very unique terrain. The area is geographically hill-locked, subjecting the low lands to hazards of land/infrastructure degradation calamities which have combined to bring negative effects on the economic lives of the people. In view of the predictable effects of worsening desertification at the door-mouth of Bauchi state, and the undisputable fast-tracking brought about by Climate Change, unique habitats such Dass Local Government area need special cases attention. The area is contending with a number of lands/infrastructure degradation flash-points which were recently identified by the appropriate authorities in the state and the council area. Our Research Team visited these areas for on-the-spot data collection, analysis and advocacy. The areas covered are as follows:

  1. Bondi Village Flood Zone: This problem site affects the road that links Bondi village to Dass town. It badly affects the road and surrounding farmlands. Up to 6 hectares of farmlands affected and the road is left in worsening conditions. Population of residents who depend on the road for all of their economic activities is up to 250,000 people. The flood-bed measures 1 kilometer long and 10 meters wide. Mitigation structures needed in the area are water channels and drainage system. Soil tests carried out on samples obtained from the area shows adverse effects of the menace on its nutrient contents.
  2. Wardi-Kardan Flood Zone: This flooding occures in worsening dimensions every year. The source of the flood water is River Kardan which unfailingly overflows its borders every year. Previous flood mitigation embankment on the river bank built by the government has been overwhelmed. Additional and more solid embankments need to the put in place to measure 1.8 meter wide, 1.5 meters high. The flood zone is 2 kilometers long. Farm owners in the area have had to resort to higher quantum of artificial manure every year on their farms as the soil continues to loose essential nutrient contents every year as confirmed by results of tests carried out on samples obtained from the area. Mitigation structures urgently needed in the area includes extensive water channels, sand-filling, stone-pitching and embankments.
  3. Wandi Area Flood Zone: This affects the road that leads to Wandi shops and its surrounding buildings. The menace traumatizes residents of the area every rainy season and leaves the soil content worse for it as proved by the results of tests done on them by us. The area needs a double ring culvert to measure 7 meters long, 5 meters wide and 2 meters high.
  4. Yelwa-Dass to Kogi Yelwa Road Flood Zone: This menace affects the road that links Yelwa-Dass to Kogi Yelwa. Farmlands, residential homes, town streets as well as electrical installations are badly affected. Up to 8 hectares of farmlands are flooded. Mitigation structures needed in the area are properly planned drainage system, embankments around Yelwa Dass and channelization from flood bed to Kogi Yelwa to prevent continuous free flow of flood waters.
  5. Dass-Tafawa Balewa Road Gully Erosion Site: This gully site affects the major road which links Dass to the neighboring local government areas and their respective border-town communities and on to other towns on the Southern part of Bauchi State. Soil tests carried out on samples obtained from the area showed 60% degradation of essential nutrient contents compared to ones obtained from unaffected neighboring ones. Mitigation structures urgently needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and embankments to prevent continuous damaging effects to existing infrastructures.

Impacts Conclusion:

When the facts and figures on lands/infrastructure degradation obtained from the problems flash-points in Dass local government area were subjected to analysis by experts on the issue, they were conclusive that the people of the local government area, the state and local government loose as much as 450 million every year in the forms of perished crops, un-utilizable land capital, idle human resources and consequently uncollectable taxes. They are also of the   informed view that the area needs as much as N350 million to put in place the most minimal level of degradation mitigation structures to prepare the people for the impending effects of Climate Change.

GAMAWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Land/infrastructure degradation flash-points in Gamawa local Government Area visited by our Team are:

  1. Gwololo Community: The problem site which affects Gwololo south primary school, residential homes, town streets and a vast piece of farmland manifest itself in seasonal flooding which rendered these areas very dangerous for habitation. Up to 7 hectares of farmland is affected. Tests carried out on soil samples obtained from the area, when compared to one obtained from unaffected areas of the community showed significant loss of its nutrient contents and indicated being quite fragile. The area’s mitigation will be an extensive water-channeling to take flood water to a possible earth-area which the community dwellers can turn to for dry season farming.
  2. Gatatara East Draught/Desertification Zone: This devastating draught/desertification ravaged part of Gamawa local government area shows very effects of the nightmare farmers and land owners are going through in this far Northern local government area of Bauchi state. The effects of desertification in the area is an emergency graded problem site. Farm lands planted with maize, guinea corn, rice and other crops laid wasted and famished in a total land area of over 100 hectares of farmlands. It is in fact an emergency problem zone which the local call Fakonkaisawa. The area needs extensive greening through a Jathropla tree nursing and planting project, borehole sinking and earth-dams. Soil tests carried out showed near complete loss of all essential nutrient contents. Human resources development data obtained from the area also showed unacceptable down-turn in the level of primary and secondary school registration figures.
  3. Gamawa town Ungwan Abuja Flood Zone: This is a flood zone that has constituted a perennial threat to infrastructure development around the administrative headquarters of the local government area. The flood water penetrates almost ¼ of the area during the rainy seasons, sacking up to 1000 house-holds with a population of up to 150,000 people. Problems control structures needed is an extensive drainage system that covers up to 2000 meters long from the area occupied by INEC office through the local government secretariat up to Ungwan Abuja. An earth dam behind the general hospital would be an ideal infrastructural need.
  4. Gamawa Town (Ungwan China) Gully Erosion site: This gully site has devastated the land that links Alagarna to Gamawa town, residential buildings and farmlands. The area also needs urgent drainage system of up to 1000 meters long after sand-filling and stone-pitching to protect threatened homes and other buildings.
  5. Alagarno Community Gully Erosion site: This affects the premises of the only Junior secondary school and maternity hospital in the area which have been devastated. The area needs sand- filling, stone-pitching and drainages over a land area of 2700 square meters.
  6. Odubo-Gadia Road: This very important rural road that links important farming communities is badly damaged by gully erosion and flood water in areas such as Mashuawa stream area. The road needs urgent rehabilitation so as to improve 450,000 people estimated to depend on the road for their economic activities all through the year.
  7. Godia Town Gullies and flooding Zone: This problem affects town roads, and residential buildings as well and farmlands. Up to 300 residential homes have been destroyed over the years. This area needs drainage system, sand-filling and stone-pitching to cover Godia Road, Angwan Arewa and Chigwan Kudu, a total devastated area of up to 5000 square meters.

Impacts Conclusion:

Gamawa local government area is one part of Bauchi state that is already about 75% under the full impacts of desertification. It is also one of the Council Areas with the largest land area in Nigeria. The people and government of Gamawa Local Government Area loose as much as N530 million every year to the multifaceted effects of land/infrastructure degradation that prevail in the area. Our problems control structural costs analysts are also conclusive that the areas needs as much as N500 million naira to take the fight to the desert and put in place the most essential control structures in the L.G.A.

GANJUWA LOCAL GOVERNNMENT AREA

Ganjuwa local government area of Bauchi State has the following lands/infrastructure degradation flash-points which combine to negatively retard the economic living standard of the 100% farming population of the area.

  1. Ziggam Gully Erosion Site: This problem site affects vast areas of farmlands which is up to 10 hectares in size. It also threatens the road that links Bridge II to Ruda, which is 5 kilometers long. The area needs extensive sand-filling, stone-pitching, culvert works and standard drainage systems.
  2. Bridge II- Ruda Road Degradation Problem Site: The road is badly damaged by a combination of flooding, surface and gully erosion as well as over-use. The road is 5 kilometers long. It needs rehabilitation, a double-ring culvert work between Bridge II and Ruda to measure 7 meters wide and 3.2 meters deep.
  3. Tsoho Kariya Drought Ravaged farms: Up to 8 hectares of farmland planted with varieties of crops were all stunted and dried up, without a single grain of yield on them. Crops in their various stages of devastation are maize, soggum, late millet and groundnuts. One of the farmers, Mallam Abdulahi, whose farm was a sorry site of famished crops and scotched earth told our Team that while he used to spend an average of N65,000.00 on a hectare of maize farm in a good year and harvested 30 bags; thereby making some good profit, this year, the same investment had gone down the drain, putting him in debts and trauma. The area needs extensive desertification control projects such as borehole sinking, Jathropha planting and nursing as well as earth dams.
  4. Gala Flood Zone/Gully Site: This devastation affects vast areas of farmlands and the feeder road that links Miya to Warji local government area. The flood zone covers a total land area of more than 4 hectares of farmlands. By its level of economic impacts on the people, the Gala flood zone degradation zone qualifies to be graded as an emergency problem site and be treated as so. The gullies measured 21 meters wide, 5 meters deep and had broken down half of the road. Notably the flood disasters which occur around the road had claimed lives in the past when three men were overwhelmed by the flood and lost their lives. The Hamlet Head of Gala, Sale Adamu spoke to our Team on the sad incident, the annual trauma the people suffer and the economic tolls the menace brings on his people every year. Mitigation structures needed in the area includes extensive water channelization to control erosion waters, stone-pitching of the Wiya-Warji road on both sides for the full length of the flood-prone areas of the road, embankments an earth dam.
  5. Kafin Liman-Nasarawa Road Flood Zone: The menace affect farmlands and renders the road which links the two communities to Gamawa and on to the rest of the state. Rampaging gullies had devastated almost 1/10 of the 25 kilometer road. Mitigation structures needed will be extensive sand-filing, culvert works, stone-pitching and channelization of erosion water around the flood bed to harvest water to a possible earth dam site. Soil tests carried out showed extensive degradation of essential soil nutrients.

Impacts Conclusion:

Based on the degradation data obtained from all the flash-points visited by our Team in Ganjuwa Local Government Area, experts on the economic impacts of the problems are of the informed opinion that the government and people of the area loose as much as N450 million every year to the menace. The area is also said to need at least up to N400 million to be able to put in place the most urgent level of problems mitigation structures across the identified problem flash-points. Project-specific Bills of Quantities for required control structures were still being worked on as at the time of this data-based opinion. Human resources development indices like primary schools’ graduation and college registration figures did not reflect the increasing population of the L.G.A., thereby indicating the economic down-turn of the people’s education progress with its security implication to the people and state. The envisaged effects of Climate Change makes mitigation projects very urgent in all rural Africa and Ganjunwa is a model case.

GIADE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

Lands/Infrastructure degradation problem sites visited by our Team in Giade local Government Area are the following:

  1. Isawa Village Gully Erosion Site: the menace affects farmlands, residential houses and town roads. 20 residential houses had been sacked as at the time of our Team’s visit while 20 hectares of farmlands were taken over by gullies. The community, populated by about 30,000 people had suffered a lot of economic trauma from the effects of the menace which manifests in the declining numbers of school children registration figures put before our research Team.
  2. Zabi Community Gully/Flooding Zone: This affects up to 17 hectares of farmlands and the premises of a public primary school in the area inhabited by a population of 30,000 people. No form of degradation control assistance has ever been extended to the area by any non-governmental organization in the past. Problems control structures needed in the area includes drainage system, sand-filling and stone-pitching of the affected area. The combination of gully-ravaged areas that need controlling is up to 500 meters in length. Farmers who had lost their products over the years in the area include Jingin Babaya, Bello Sani, Sarkin Power, Alh. Gabi, Shehu Danbaba, Alh. Bilya, Tailor Saadu, Sarkin Magari, Bellow Makeri and Mallam Kawu. The very worried Madakin Zabi, Hakimi Mohammed A Zabi accompanied our Team around the devastated areas. Soil samples obtained from the area showed 43% loss of nutrient contents, compared to others obtained from non-degraded areas.
  3. Chaikani-Jarmawa Road Gully Site: Affects up to 75 hectares of farmland. The 8 kilometer long road links highly populated farming communities to Gaide, the administrative headquarters, popular markets, and the rest of the world. Degradation control structures needed along this road is essentially general rural road rehabilitation works like drainage system and culverts works.
  4. Ungwan Gwuru in Giade Town Gully Site: The degradation site affects residential homes, town streets and other economic infrastructure such as electrical installation and culvert works. Urgently needed problems mitigation structures in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainages. Gullies   measured 13.5 meters deep, 7 meters wide and of various lengths, with soil tests showing up to 65% loss of nutrient contents.
  5. Tagwaye Gully Erosion Site: Also affects farmlands, town roads, residential homes and threaten other economic infrastructural developments. Up to 12 hectares of farmlands devastated. Thirty residential houses had been rendered inhabitable as at the time of our visit, rendering a sizable fraction of the 25000 people who populate the area homeless. Solution structures needed in the area are sand-filling and stone-pitching. Gullies measured 3 meters deep, 3.6 meters wide and 1500 meters long.

Impacts Conclusion:

The socio-economic implications of the degradation data obtained from Giade Local Government Area manifest themselves in various ways. Human resource development indices obtained from primary and secondary schools registration records showed a disproportionate rise and fall of figures in years during which the debilitating effects of draught and other forms of degradation showed similar dimensions. The local government and people of the L.G.A. loose up to N450 million naira worth of properties, farm products and uncollectable taxes every year due to the state of degradation that prevail in the area. Our control structural cost Analysts are of the conclusive opinion that the sum of not less than 360 million naira will needed to put in place the most necessary problems mitigation structures and practices in Giade local government area.

ITAS GADAU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Itas Gadu local government area, its 100% agricultural investment practicing population and its Local Government are groaning under the debilitating effects of the following lands/infrastructure degradation problems as identified by the leadership of the Council.

  1. Itas Gadau Town Gully Site: This seriously affects up to 4 hectares of farmland, the town streets and the premises of Arewa Primary School. It also affects the road linking the town to river Biji which also acts as a source of the flood waters that bring about the gullies in the town. The river-side gully erosion measured 150 meters wide and 300 meters long while those in other parts of the town measured 100 meters wide and 6 meters deep and 450 meters long leaving the soil around the devastated areas almost completely devoid of agriculturally beneficent nutrient contents, according to results of tests carried out on their samples. Mitigation structures urgently needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage systems.
  2. Makani Community Gully Erosion Site: This also affects residential buildings, economic infrastructure like streets and electrical installations. Gallatu stream which passes through the village aids the rapid rate of degradation. The area, which population figure is put at 30,000 people, has lost 31 residential houses to the ravages of gully erosion as at the time of our research visit. The gullies measured 10 meters wide, 5 meters deep and 1000 meters long at the point our Team took its measurement. Solution structures needed are sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainages.
  3. Majia Community Gully Erosion Site: The degradation here affects farmlands, residential homes and electrical installations. The area is populated by about 50,000 people while 47 residential homes had been sacked by the ravages of Gully Erosion as at the time of our visit. Mitigation structures needed in the area is also as reflected in (1) above. Gullies measured 6 meters deep, 12 meter wide and 900 meters long leaving the soil highly eroded and devoid of essential nutrient contents as proved by the results of tests carried out on samples obtained from the area.
  4. Gajara Degradation Site: This area suffers from a combination of flooding, gullies and soil erosion arising from river Magaraya and has created an emerging and fast expanding degradation problem in the area. It has rendered up to 100 hectares of farmland almost completely worthless for their owners. River Kiyawa, which is a major source of the meandering overflow and encroachment need to be stopped with an embankment and sand-filling to stop it from further damages to Gajara land. Extensive Jathropha planting programme to solidify the fragile soil is every necessary. The scope and nature of this river Kiyawa encroachment problem and the economic tolls it has taken on the rural economy makes it an emergency graded problem and deserves to be treated as such. Mitigation structures will be land reclamation work through sand-filling and embankment construction to stop river Kiyawa in its tracks and a properly funded Jathropha planting and nurturing to maturity.
  5. Gansha Community Gully Erosion Site: This degradation menace affects residential homes, the community’s tarred roads and farmlands. A public primary school building and premises were also affected. Gullies measured 200 meters long 10 meters wide and 5 meters deep. Mitigation structures needed in the area are sand-filling and stone-pitching.
  6. Gadau Gully Erosion/Flood Site (Sabon Wuya): This is another emergency graded problem site which affects up to 3000 hectares of farmland with a population of about 300,000 people depending on those farmlands for their economic activities. The gullies which were beginning to turn into flowing streams stated ravaging the area about 5 years ago, from 2016 when our Team visited the area. Gullies measured 40 meters wide, 21 meters deep and all together 5000 meters long. The area needs extensive sand-filling, embankments and Jathropha planning and nursing. The soil in the area had lost a high quantum of its nutrient contents as a result of the state of degradation. Gajara land, in the same district suffers degradation effects that had rendered up to 100 hectares of farmlands almost valueless. Mitigation structures needed in the area are extensive sand-filling, reclamation plans through Jathropha planting and nursing.

 

Impacts Conclusion:

When the degradation data obtained from Itas Gadu local government area were put before Desertification and Climate Change analysts, it was concluded that the local government area’s people and government loose up to N450 million every year in the forms of non-collectable taxes, perished crops, lost agricultural investments and untapped human resources. School registration records obtained by our Team showed unacceptable decline in recent years during which desertification issues impacted negatively on the people’ economic lives. Lands degradation impacts mitigation structures urgently needed in the local government area is valued at not les than N380 million. Project-specific billing were still being carried out.

JAMARE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Jamare local government area has the following lands and infrastructure degradation problems flash-points as identified by the leadership of the Local Government Council.

  1. Dakodeko-Jamare Road Flood Zone: The yearly flooding devastation affects up to 120 hectares of farmlands as well as intra and inter community roads. Cash and food crops are lost to the menace every year. The area is populated by an estimated number of 3000 people whose sole occupation is farming and trading. River Jamare is the source of the flood waters which bring about the gullies. Mitigation structures needed in the area is an extensive sand-filling of up to 3000 meters long, 9 meters deep, and 50 meters wide. Also needed is an embankment against the flood waters of up to 50 meters wide. Soil sample tests results showed 40% loss of nutrient contents, compared to nearby unaffected areas.
  2. Fetere-Jamare Road Flood Zone: The menace affects farmland of up to 30 hectares in size, 20 residential homes and the road that links the village to Gwangel in Jigawa state. The people who depend on the road for their economic lives are estimated to be up to 30,000 in population. Chakparema River in Jagawa state is the source of the flood waters. Mitigation structure needed in the area is an extensive Water channelization to take flood waters to a prefared earth-dam for which the people are crying. To enable them engage in dry-season farming.
  3. Jamare Community Flood Zone: This affects farmlands and town roads. Up to 100 hectares of farmlands devastated. Jurara dam over-flow is the sole source of the menace. Solution structures needed is extensive water channelization and one   earth-dam.
  4. Dogon Jaji Erosion Damaged Roads/residential homes: The area affected is the 2 kilometer long old motor park in the middle of the town. Four other streets with similar problems exist in the town and mitigation structures needed in the entire town is a properly planned drainage system along Emme street, Katin Kori Street, Kofar Kudu Street and Gabori Street all measuring 1 kilometer each. They all need mitigation structures. Mallam Sueiman Yussuf councillour representing Dogon Jaji on the Council spoke to our Team, pleading for extra-governmental assistance.
  5. Yola Flood Zone: This problem site badly affects the road that   leads to the administrative headquarters of the Local Government. 1200 hectares of farmlands is also affected. The road that links Barbale to Yola which is 2 kilometers long is the worst hit. River Jamare is the source of the problem. Mitigation structure needed in the area large sized channelization of flood water and an elevated stone-based road of up to 2 kilometers. Soil tests carried out on samples obtained from the area showed 53% loss of nutrient content, compared to others obtained from other unaffected parts of the town.
  6. Bariki/Water Board Area of Jamare Town flood zone: this affects farmlands, roads and residential homes. 50 hectares of farmland affected. Extensive sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage system are the needed mitigation structures in this area.

Impacts Conclusion:

Jamare local government, its people and the state government loose as much as N400 million annually due to perished crops, failed agricultural investments, uncollectable taxes and wasted human resource, according to experts who were availed of the problems data obtained from the area. The area also needs at least N350 million naira to put in place mitigation structures in places where they are most-needed to cotail the prevalent problems and expected effects of climate change.

KATAGUM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Katagun local government area is the second most pressured metropolitan council area in the state. Some statisticians even place it as being more metropolitan than Bauchi in view of its proximity to Kano city, the commercial hob of not only Northern Nigeria but the country as whole. For this reason, competition for land space, especially non-degraded land space would always be a key issue on the table of the administration of the local government area. For this and other key reasons, the caretaker committee chairman of the Council Area, Mohammed Daji Wakili rarely travels out of the area except on very important official engagements. He was personally involved in the facilitation of our Team’s data collection visits to land/infrastructure degradation flash-points of the council area as follows:

  1. Charachara Community Drought/Desertification Zone: Vast farm lands of up to 4 hectares in Madara district in size in Madara district is devastated by drought and effects of desertification. The area needs up to five numbers of boreholes and an earth-dam to facilitate dry season farming. Soil sample tests showed just 35% presence of necessary nutrient content.
  2. Gwazamai Community flood zone: This perennial flooding zone, also in Madara district, affects residential houses and economic infrastructure. Up to 100 households have suffered from the trauma the flooding visits upon the citizens every year. The entire community needs a well-planed drainage system that can channel rain well to an earth-dam which will facilitate dry season farming. The residents who have suffered from the destruction visited upon their households over the years need some form of economic empowerment.
  3. Ugwan Dankawa flood/Gully Erosion Site: This community suffers from periodic flooding and gully erosion problems. As at the time of our visit, up to 45 residential homes belonging to identifiable families had been destroyed by the floods as at the last count. The area needs a well-planned drainage system, sand-filling and stone-pitching.
  4. Buskari flood one and Gully Erosion Site: This combination of flooding and gully erosion problem affects a total farmland area of up to 14 hectares and by the rapidity of the gullies expansion, amounts to an emergency problem site that needs urgent solution. Up to 15000 people have been temporally or permanently displaced from their homes by this problems. Soil samples obtained from the area showed loss of essential contents when compared to one obtained from near-by non-degraded areas. Solution structures require in the area are extensive sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage systems.
  5. Madara Town Gully and Flood Zone Site: This degradation site has affected up to 25 residential homes and there-fore amounts to an emergency problem spot. Town roads and farmlands of up to 6 hectares in size had been over-run by the menace. The area also needs extensive sand-filling stone-pitching, drainages and rehabilitation of destroyed homes.
  6. Chimchade- Gangai Rural Feeder Road: This 5-kilometers long road that links up to 7000 farming population has suffered terrible degradation through torrential flooding and gully erosion damages and has become useless to farmer during the moments of produce harvest and marketing, resulting in unquantifiable losses. Rehabilitation works that would need culvert works and drainages is needed at Gongai community.

Impacts Conclusion:

Katagum Local Government Area, as the second most metropolitan Council Area in Bauchi State is known to be under severe population pressure. Competition for arable lands amongst indigenous farmers in the face of desertification is keen. The people and government of Katagum Local Government Area loose as much as N580 million every year to the multifaceted effects of land/infrastructure degradation that prevail in the area. Our problems control structural costs analysts are also conclusive that the areas needs as much as N400 million naira to put in place the most essential degradation control structures in the L.G.A.

KIRFI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Kirfi local government area has the following lands/infrastructural degradation problem areas which need urgent mitigation structures to cotail their negative impacts on the people and the government at the   state and local levels.

  1. Kwagal Gully erosion/Flooding zone: The problem affects the entire town’s residential homes, farmlands and all roads leading to the town. Up to 30 hectares of farmland affected. Altogether, 6 kilometers of roads that link the town are affected. The area is populated by about 10,000 people. Gullies measured 14 meters wide, 7 meters deep and 6000 meters long. 32 residential homes had been sacked by the gullies and floods. Sarkin Kwagal, Mallam Abdulahi Abba led our Team around the flashpoints of the problems. Mitigation structures needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage system. Soil tests carried out on samples from the area showed loss of 50% of agriculturally beneficent nutrient contents compared to ones obtained from unaffected areas of the town.
  2. Bara Community Gully Erosion Site: Affects farmlands, residential homes, electrical installations and the community’s road network. Up to 100 hectares of farmlands are affected by flooding disasters. Gullies measured 12 meters deep, 9 meters wide and 8 kilometer long when put together, on one side of the town. Mitigation structures needed in the area are extensive sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage systems.
  3. Lomi Fulani Community Gully Erosion Site: This degradation problem site quantities to be graded as an Economic Emergency problem site by every standard a problem can be quantified. It affects up to 90 hectares of farmlands and the road linking Lomi to Larinski and on to Zangona, Wurokudu in Gombe state, Barri, Zange, Alagarno, Bolawa and Garin Madaka. The population of rural dweller depending on the roads for economic activities was put at 30,000 people. Gullies measured 40 meter wide, 20 meters deep and 3000 meters long. Mitigation structures urgently needed in the area are extensive sand-filling, stone-pitching, drainage system and a Jathropha planting projected that can aid erosion control while also economically empowering the local land owners.
  4. Cheledi Community Area of Kirfi Town Gully Erosion Site: Affects farmlands, residential homes and roads leading to farmlands. Up to 50 hectares of farmlands devastated while 30 residential homes had been badly affected as at the time of our Team’s visit. Gullies measured 3 meters deep, 7 meters wide and 3000 meters long, put together. The area is populated by about 10,000 people, hundred percent of whom are farmers. Soil tests showed loss of up to 60% of essential nutrient contents necessary for profitable agricultural investment.
  5. Wanka Community Gully/Flood Zone: The problem site affects a vast area of farmlands which is 150 hectares in size. The area has a population of 16,000 people. The road that links Wanka to Kirfi, the administrative e headquarters of the council Area is also badly affected. Mitigation structure needed in the area are extensive sand-filling and properly planned drainage channels.

Impacts Conclusion:

When the degradation data obtained from Kirfi Local Government area were put before experts on desertification and Climate Change effects, they were conclusive that the state and local government as well as the people of the area altogether loose as much as N400million every year to the effects of the problems. They were also of the informed opinion that the area needs as much as N330 million to put in place the most minimal level of mitigation structures needed in the areas visited by our Team even while project-specific Bills of Quantities were being worked out.

MISAU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Misau local government area has the following land/infrastructure degradation flash-points which our Team visited.

  1. Misau-Giena Hausa Road (Ajile Community Gully Site): The gully ravaged site is along Misau-Ajile road and had rendered the road virtually unusable. It also affects farmlands of up to 3 hectares in size. A large sized culvert work constructed by the local government had been damaged beyond repair by rampaging gully erosion waters and a new one is urgently needed in the area. The road needs two culverts to aid proper drainage around the affected area. Sand-filling of at least 5,000 square meters of land area is also required.
  2. Korin Dunkwei is another area that needs urgent attention: A large-size culvert work to aid transportation of farm products along the road is required. Korin Wayati is also a point along the road that needs to be rehabilitated through the construction of a large culvert. Soil sample tests done on the soil obtained from the devastated area indicated high presence of eroded sands from the highlands close to the area which would need to be excavated in the event of maintenance works to be done on the road.
  3. Korin Wayati: It is a round Korin Wayati that the worst damage to the road is found. Vast gullies around the stream amounts to the most devastating damage that has been inflicted to the road. The area needs sand-fillings stone-pitching and a large-size culvert to make the road useful to farmers during the rainy seasons.
  4. Gwaranton Gully Erosion Site: The problem flash-point affects residential homes, farmlands and roads. Up to 200 residential homes had been threatened or destroyed as at the time of our visit 3500 meter long gully that measured 3 meters deep and 7 meter wide needs to be sand-filled, stone-pitched around people’s residential homes and the premises of a public school within the devastated area. A concerned resident of the town Mallam Baba Mohammed showed our team around and spoke passionately about the dilemma of residents of the town during rainy seasons while appealing for concerted efforts from all quarters to control the problem. The gullies in the area measured 3 meters deep and 7 meters wide in most parts. Soil samples obtained from the area showed high level of essential content losses, compared to ones obtained from balanced parts of the town.
  5. Madakiri – Kafin Sule Road Gull Erosion Site: The problem affects farmlands and the road that links the two communities. The gullies, covering a total area of 3400 square meters measured 4 meters deep and 15 meters wide. The area needs urgent sand-filling, stone-=pitching and drainages.
  6. Agaluba Ceramic Area of Misau Town Gully Site: The area is affected by devastating gullies that threaten many houses the town while streets in Misau town are badly damaged. The gully is aided by seasonal flooding that is on record to have penetrated people’s homes at the oddest hours. The area needs extensive drainage system sand-filling and stone-pitching. These mitigation structures will add value to the lives of the positively minded youths and elders who live around the area.

Impacts Conclusion:

Based on the problems data obtained from the grounds around the nooks and crannies of Misau local government area, Economic Impact analysts put the annual losses suffered by the government and people of Misau local government area at not less than N400 million. Problem control costs analysts also put the cost of urgently needed structures that would mitigate the impacts of the identified problems at N360 million even as project specific Bills of Quantities to confirm these informed estimates where still being worked on.

SHIRA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Lands/Infrastructure degradation flash-points in Shira Local Government Area which constitute various forms of economic set-backs to the government and people of the area as indentified by the appropriate departments of the local Government area as follows:

  1. Iyana-Bangire Road, Gully Erosion Site: This expansive problem site has devastated a big fraction of the nine-kilometer road which virtually acts as the economic nerve-linking organ of Bangire and its surrounding communities all of which combine to form a major agricultural hob. The gullies affect hectares of farmlands. Bangire is the converging point for farmer from surrounding communities, such as Dama, Languran, Dun Magani, Gaza, Tungwal, Tarawo, Riga Jauri, Kolawal and Kawada all of which population figure is put at 90,000 people. Due to the level of the degradation, the road needs urgent rehabilitation by way of sand-filling, drainage system and up to four members of culvert works- expansion of old ones and one new one a Rigan Mallam Yau, which is 7 kilometers from Yana. Gullies measured 5 meters deep and 19 meters wide at where our Team took its data. Soil sample tests showed 55% loss of essential nutrient contents, in comparison to surrounding areas soil content.
  2. Jaka – Tsafi Road Gully Erosion/Flood Zone: The ravage affects up to 50 hectares of farmlands and the road that links the two communities with each other. The population of the people who depend on the road for their economic livelihood is put at 60,000 people. Girawa community is the moist affected along the road where a large culvert which has been rebuilt many times over has been destroyed again and now needs a half-bridges. The flood-bed measured 93 meters wide and its surrounding gullies measured 7 meters deep
  3. Gagidiba Flood Zone: This flood zone is an emergency graded land degradation site by any standard of categorization. It affects farmlands and residential homes. It has also wiped out the economically important Zigau-Zabo road. 70 hectares of farmlands lies in waste in the area due to this desertification – aided degradation. The gullies along the road measured 10 meters deep along most parts of the road by the river-side. Extensive sand-filling of the road for a distance of 500 meters is long over due as well as stone-pitching.
  4. Zigal – Zubo Road Degradation Site: This rural feeder road devastation area is a disaster-prone one which has a peculiar story around it. Obviously because of the strategic position of the road and its lamentable state, our Team was informed that the road had continued to appear in the project-list of almost every state government administration over the years, with the exception of the present one, for construction during budget allocations. The question that confounds the peoples minds in the area is whether any of those “ allocations” as publicly announced, were released for the road’s construction or not, and if they had been funded, what happened to such funds? The 35 kilometers long road which has continued to take its economic tolls on the people has disturbed the conscience of the member of the State House of Assembly representing Shira Constituency Hon. Awolu Hassan who had begun to sponsor the sand-filling of parts of the road as at the time of our Team’s visit. The Team witnessed the delivery of many truck-loads of imported sand being deposited along the road at his expenses, to the admiration of the road users. The land degradation has knocked off other infrastructural development efforts of the government suck as electricity poles that had been broken down plunging many communities such as Ganuwa, Gagidiba, Tsumbi and Ajangara into perpetual darkness. Solution structures such as sand-filling, drainage system, stone-pitching and water harvesting are urgently needed in the area. Soil sample tests prove d 70% loss of essential nutrient contents, comparatively speaking.
  5. Girawa Bukul Flood Zone: The flood zone affects up to 40 hectares of farmland and the road that links Zigau to Banjan community, all farming communities populated by up to 60,000 people. The area urgently needs properly planned water channels that will direct flood waters away from the road into a possible earth-dam site.
  6. Zainabari – Shira road Gully Erosion Site: The problem affects                       vast areas of farmlands measuring up to 12 hectares and the road that links the community to Shira and acts as links between Shira and other surrounding farming communities, one of which is Bella where the gullies                                                   are at its worst manifestation measuring 4 meters deep and 7 meters wide. Control structures needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and properly planned drainage system.

Impacts Conclusions:

When the degradation data obtained from Shira local government area were subjected to expert analysis, taking into consideration the worsening problem of desertification and Climate Change, the conclusions were alarming. When the seemingly un-noticed decline in post-primary and primary school registration figures which tended to reflect the economic living standard of the rural dwellers were taken side by side with actual loses the farmers have experienced from agricultural investments, the security implications of an untapped youth energy raised concerns. The government and people of Shira local government area loose up to N450 million per annum to unrealizable agricultural investments and uncollectable taxes. The entire Shira land also needs as much as N500 million to put in place the level of degradation mitigation structures to prepare the people for the expected worsening   state of desertification and Climate Change.

TAFAWA BALEWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Tafawa Balewa Local Government area of Bauchi State has been contending with a myriad of lands/infrastructure degradation problems that have brought negative impact on the agrarian economy of the area. The areas identified by the authorities of the local government and visited by our research Team are as follows:

  1. Burgel-Gori Road Gully Site: This economically important road links many farming communities with each other and with major markets within and outside the local government area. Such communities include Wur, Bandas, Sigdi and Kundum, with an estimated population of 30,000 people. All the way from Burgel to Tsoho Burgel, the lands/infrastructure degradation mitigation structures urgently needed are sand-filling, stone-pitching, two half-bridges and up to five numbers of culvert works.
  2. Tsoho Burgel Gully Site: Apart from the extensive damages being done to the road that passes through the community which needs urgent rehabilitation, Tsoho Burgel community is inundated with gully erosion sites that extend far into farmlands. Up to 5 hectares of farmlands are affected in Tsoho Burgel all on its own. Extensive sand-filling, and stone-pitching works as well as Jathropha planting for economic sustenance and erosion control will be needed in the area. Soil tests carried out on samples obtained from the area showed that poor farmers have to invest heavily on fertilizer and other artificial inputs because the soil has lost much of its essential nutrient contents due to the years of erosion.
  3. Tafawa Balewa River Bank Flood Zone: The menace on the bank of the river affects up to 15 hectares of farmland and had knocked off a high number of electrification project equipments such as poles and wirings. Area needs intensive embankment, stone-pitching, sand-filling and water channelization.
  4. Ball community Draught/Desertification Zone: Up to 30 hectares of farmland lies completely devoid of any form of vegetation, rendering the soil completely eroded and lacking any quantum nutrient content when subjected to test. The area is populated by up to 10,000 people whose major occupation is farming.
  5. Burgel-Dull Road Gully Erosion Site: The 20 kilometer-long road which links these two popular farming communities together as well as other surrounding ones is devastated by gully erosion. Up to 7 hectares of farm lands are affected. Gullies measured 3 meters deep and 5 meters wide with soil tests showing high loss of farmer-friendly nutrient contents which implication is high quantum of needs for ill-affordable fertilizer inputs that ends up putting them in debts.

Impacts Conclusion:

The government and people of Tafawa Balewa local government area, according to data based analysis by experts on Desertification and Climate Change effects, loose as much as N350 million every year. The area also needs as much as N400 million to put in place the most urgently needed lands/infrastructure degradation mitigation structures in the areas our Team visited even while the Bills of Quantity for specific projects needed in the area are being worked on. The losses arize from perished farm products, draught inflicted losses from agricultural investments, uncollectable taxes, and idle man-power, with security-implicating lowering standard of human resource development indices.

TORO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Lands/ infrastructure degradation flash-points visited by our Team in Toro local government area are:

  1. Rahama Town Gully Erosion Sites: The fast expanding gullies have already rendered up to 190 residential homes   too dangerous to live in, making the area an emergency graded problem flashpoint. The population of the area which is put at about 15,000 people are face to face with the daily fear of what can happen to their homes during he raining seasons. A very important economic infrastructure in the form of a bridge that links Saminaka in Kaduna state to Magama in Bauchi state is being badly threatened by the rampaging gully. Urgently needed mitigation structures in the area are in the forms of extensive sand-filling, stone-pitching, and water drainage channels to control erosion water to Kogin Rahama which is 4 kilometer away from the gully-ravaged   area of the town. Gullies measured 8 meters wide, 4 meters deep and up to 500 meters long in most parts.
  2. Tumbi Community Un-reclaimed Mining Sites: The menace is in the form of mining activities under taken in the area in the early nineteen sixties and nineteen seventies by largely Colonia Miners which have bent left un-reclaimed and posses as a source of threat to lives and economic activities by farmers who own the land. Roads are also affected. Up to 4 hectares of farmlands are affected. The area needs urgent sand-filling of the mining sites and stone-pitching to protect roads and other economic structures in the area from further degradation.
  3. Balarabe Community Flood Zone: Worst hit area of this flood zone is Gwat Fadako stream and its immediate surrounding areas. The menace has created a history of expensive damages to bridges constructed by the government to facilitate economic activities. The area needs an urgent Bridge-work to measure 53 meters long across the stream and 18 meter wide. The road links Balarabe to Angwan Kanawa, Bukka, Tulai, Yelwa Bako and other popular farming communities. Culvert works are also urgently needed at Amali community to link Balarabe to the Jos-Bauchi Highway; Alhaji Jafaar Idris, as well as the Hon. Councilor representing the area Mohammed Kabir and many others lamented the hash economic effects of the flooding to their people and solicited for any form of intervention as the state government can hardly afford to attend to all such problems all over the state.
  4. Gwuggu Rural Road: The badly eroded rural road links Gwuggu to Toro and acts as the main economic-activities-aiding road between Malmo, Takanda, Giwa, Yakanaji and Yuga. The road is 9 kilometers long and is in dare need of rehabilitation. A drift and culvert constructed by the local government had been destroyed due to unmitigated erosion water assaulting the road.
  5. Biciki Rural Road: This is another economically important rural road in the local government area which links very popular farming communities whose farm products have continued to remain unmarketable during their perishable periods due to the state of the road. The road links Biciki to Gaji, and affects up to 12,000 people whose economic activities are hampered by the damaged road. The road is 5 kilometers long.

Impacts Conclusion:

Based on the research data obtained from Toro LGA on the prevailing level of land/infrastructure degradation from the problems flash-points visited by our Team, the local government area and its people suffer economic deprivations that are valued at not less than N360 million every year. The council area is also adjudged to be in need of not less than N400 million to be able to put in place the most basic land/infrastructure degradation recovery structures, even while actual Bill of Quantity for specific structures are still being worked on.

WARJI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Warji local government area of Bauchi state, which is peopled by 100% farming population is on record to be in contention with various forms of lands/infrastructure degradation problems.

Authorities of the local government area, exemplarily led by the Care-taker Committee chairman of the Council, identified and facilitated the harrowing visits of our Research Team to the identified flash-points of the problems. They are the followings:

  1. Gilas Area Gully Erosion Site: This gully-ravaged area of Ranga Ward is an eye-opener to the level of degradations that prevail across Warji local government area. It affects residential homes, farmlands and inter-community linking roads, which links Warja Town to other parts of the LGA and on to Gwaram Local Government Area of Jigawa state. Up to thirty residential homes had been badly affected as at the time of our visit in November 2016, traumatizing the lives of up to 350 people who are owners of these residential homes. Most of the gullies measured 2.5 meters deep, 5 meters wide and 700 meters long when put together. Soil tests carried out on samples obtained from the area proved extremely fragile and had lost essential nutrient contents due to the years of surface and gully erosion the area has been subjected to. Urgent mitigation structures needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage systems.
  2. Haya Baba Gully Erosion Site: This menace in Wondo Ward of the council area badly affects farmlands and the road linking Haya Baba with Nasaru community in Ningi local government area. Up to 15 hectares of land area affected. The area needs sand-filing, stone-pitching, drainage system and up to five numbers of culvert works. Gullies measured 2 meters deep, 1 meter wide and 300 meter long.
  3. Gidan Mada Town Gully Site: This gully site in Tudun Wada ward affects residential homes and farmlands. 20 hectares of farmlands is heavily ridden with gullies and fifteen residential houses had been sacked, subjecting the residents to psychological trauma of life-threatening dimensions. Farmers have continued to record declining harvests every year due to the eroded nutrient contents of the soil as confirmed by the results of soil sample tests carried out by our Team. Mitigation structures urgently needed in the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching, drainages and culvert works.
  4. Bachwa Community Gully Site: This problem in Baima Ward affects vast areas of farmlands and residential homes. Up to fifteen residential homes are badly threatened. Gullies measured 2.5 meters deep, 45 meters wide and 1000 meters long. Mitigation structures needed in the area include sand-filling, stone-pitching and drainage systems.
  5. Warji-Bauchi Road Gully Site: This problem site is an Emergency Economic Disaster-point waiting to happen. It is in Barma Ward of the local government area. The major road that offers Warji town residents a road communication link to Bauchi, the administrative headquarters of the state is on the threshold of complete destruction at Bungana area of the road and its surrounding areas. Up to 5 hectares of farmland around the area has been devastated. The gullies measured 3.5 meters deep, 4.5 meters wide, and 1000 meters long around the area. Very significant is the fact that 4.8 meters of the state-government constructed road had been destroyed   out of the 12 meters width of the road. Urgent mitigation works needed around the area are sand-filling, stone-pitching and a complete rehabilitation of the damaged state high-way to prevent a costly disaster that has long announced its risky presence.
  6. Rumba Central Primary School Gully Site: This problem site had ravaged the premises and buildings of the badly needed educational institution in Tiyin Ward of the council area and the road linking Baima to Rumba and on to Gwaram Local Government Area of Jigawa state. The gullies measured 2.8 meters deep, 2meters wide, and 500 meters long put together. Mitigation structures needed are sand-filling, stone-pitching around the buildings and a properly planned drainages system along the devastated roads and the school buildings.

Impacts conclusion:

Land degradation experts and analysts who were availed of the problems data collected from the nooks and crannies of Warji local government area were of the informed conclusion that the government and people of the area loose as much as N450 million in various ways to the effects of desertification which manifest themselves in the land. According to them, the situation is bound to get worse in the nearest future because of the worsening effects of Climate Change. They are also conclusive on the fact that even as the Bills of Quantities for control structures needed in Waji local government area are still being awaited, the council areas problems mitigation structures will cost as much as N400 million.

ZAKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

In Zaki Local Governnment Area, the flash-points of lands/infrastructure degradation problems which the local government leadership took our Team to for data collection are the followings.

  1. Rimbidi Community Draught/Desertification Zone: In Rimbidi community, up to 1000 hectares of farmlands, belonging to the community which is populated by citizens that are mainly of Fulani stock has been badly deteriorated by the combination of desertification-aided draught and gully erosion. The community is populated by an estimated figure of 34,000 people, all of whom practice one firm of land-based agricultural investment or the other. The entire land is prone to periodic torrential flooding due to the bareness of the land which enjoys no vegetation cover because of the hash effects of desertification. Problems mitigation structures needed in the area is a people coordinated desertification control program through Jathropher tree-planting, earth-dam constructions and empowerment funding that will depend on the people who own the land for sustenance. Soil tests carried out on sample obtained from the area showed no prospect for any form of agricultural investment.
  2. Maikwore Community Draught/Desertification Zone: This problem manifests itself as in (i) above, affecting another 40 hectares of farmland with a population of 30,000 people affected. Drought ravaged farms planted with sorghum which lay stunted and dried up were the overwhelming sight that greeted our Team’s eyes and camera lenses. Solution structures would be the same as (1) above.
  3. Gawuya Community flood Zone: This flood bed affects the major link road between Gawuya and Lonakyo and on to Gamawa. The people are known for irrigation farming and their major products are millet, sorghum, coffee, and water Mellon. These perishable corps make the farmers loose so much money during the rainy seasons due to the degraded state of the road which gets flooded and trap them in their homes and farms, instead of aiding easy travelling to other distant markets where competitive pricing would have afforded them improved living standards. The area is populated with about 5,000 people. As at the time of our visit, 30 residential homes had been destroyed by flood waters. The area needs extensive drainage system, sand-filling and stone-pitching. Soil tests showed severe losses of nutrient contents which make costly fertilization costs unavoidable.
  4. Gudai-Makawa Rural Road Degradation: The 12- kilometers long road which links the two communities together and on to the rest of the local government area as well as the state capital is an important economic link road to industrious minded farmers who have continued to suffer annual losses due to lost values of some of their products during rainy seasons. The road urgently needs 4 numbers of culvert works of medium sizes, two   half-bridges and drainage systems in most parts of its 12 kilometer distance. It presently takes a farmers hours of cart-drawn, mentally torturing and physically challenging trips. Rural electrification projects for the area had been knocked off by degradation effects.
  5. Madufa Town Gully Erosion Site: The gully ravaged degradation site meets all the indices to be graded to as an Emergency Problem Site. It affects farmlands, residential homes and town roads. The area is populated by about 5000 people who produce all-seasons farm products. Gully erosion had already sacked up to 1,200 families from their homes over time. Source of the gully-inflicting erosion water is Makaneri River, originating from Kiyawa in Jigawa state. Economic infrastructure like hand dug wells, electrification equipments and over-head tanks had been destroyed by the fast expanding gullies and torrential rains. Gullies measured 31 meters wide, 10 meter deep and 500 meters long put together. One of such fast expanding gullies is just 1.5 meters away from the foundation of the community’s mosque. The residential homes of Mallam Isa Mai-Ungwa, Mallam Yussuf, Alh Alayanma, Mallam Danladi Ahmadu, Audu Lanlabe, Ali Ahmadu, Musa Ahmadu, Sani Mallam Audu, Abdulahi Yussufu, Alhaji Abdulahi Minister, Rabiu Na Balle, Yakubu Muazu, Ibrahim Tatale, Corporal Musa Ahmadu Alhji Ibrahim, Mohammadu Kaluluwa, Mallam Yahaya and Danjuma Kaputa had been badly affected as the time of our visit.

 

Impacts Conclusion:

The land and infrastructure degradation data obtained from the hinterlands of Zaki local government area, when put before analysts, combine to prove that the people and government of Zaki loose as much as 300 million naira every year in uncollectable taxes, perished crops, lost agricultural investments and under-utilized human resources. The area is also in need of not less than N340 million worth of problems mitigation structures in the areas our Team was taken to, even as the data-based Bills of Quantities for the specific structures were being worked on.

General Conclusion.

What the combination of the facts on the ground in Bauchi State on the issue of the economic implications of lands and infrastructure degradation in the entire state translate to mean is that the people and governments at the second and third tiers suffer about 7.5 billion naira worth of economic losses every year to an invincible adversary they have no opportunity to fight back. When the people are pushed to the wall, and the governments have exhausted all the options available to them to pacify the people with all the financial resources at their disposals, the result cannot be anything other than volatile, volatile to the point of constituting a threat to national security. A stitch in time, they say, saves nine.

 

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